Nizhny Novgorod – is one of the most beautiful cities in Russia. It is situated in the place of confluence of the rivers Oka and Volga. It stretches over 20 km along the bank of the Oka and 30 km along the bank of the Volga. The river Oka devides the city in two parts, which are called: the eastern and the western parts, or the upper and the lower parts.
The historical centre of the city is situted in the eastern part. Nizhny Novgorod is famous for its history. The city was founded by prince Yurij Vsevolodovitch in 1221 as a fortress to protect Russian borderlines from mordovians and tatars. According to one of the versions the city was called “Nizhny” because it was situated lower than Novgorod Veliky. After the tatar yoke Nizhny Novgorod became a large political and economical centre of North-Eastern Russia.
The construction of the stone Kremlin started at the beginning of the XVI century. The architect of the Kremlin was Pyotr Fryazin. The Kremlin had fourteen towers and a stone arched bridge over the moat.
After Ivan Grozny had captured Kazan and Astrakhan Nizhny Novgorod became the trading centre of Russian state with the Eastern countries.
Kozma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky started liberation movement in Nizhny Novgorod. People’s militia played a great role in freeing Moscow from the poles.
After the times of “great distemper” Nizhegorodskoe Povolzhje started developing agriculture, industry, trading and culture.
In 1714 Nizhny Novgorod got the status of provincial city that led to the development of culture, economics and manufacture. Such famous people as mechanic I.P. Kulibin, mathematician N. I. Lobachevsky, scientist Damaskin, teacher I. I. Kuzhelev, historian N. Iljinsky, traveller V. Baranschikov and many others lived in Nizhny Novgorod.
At the beginning of the XX century the city was renamed after the famous proletarian writer A. M. Gorky. Besides Gorky automobile plant was built here, which produced lorries and cars.
In 1990 the city was renamed and got its original name – Nizhny Novgorod.
Nowadays more than 600 monuments of architecture, history and culture of Russia are preserved in Nizhny Novgorod: Nizhegorodsky Kremlin, Mikhailo-Arkhangelsky cathedral, Minin and Pozharsky square, Chkalov staircase, the building of the State Bank, Romodanovsky station, numerous churches and monasteries, the River port and others.
You can see the monuments to such famous people as: Minin and Pozharsky, Nesterov, Chkalov, Dobrolyubov, Pushkin, and also to military vehicles.
There are seven theatres in Nizhny Novgorod: the Theatre of Young Spectators, the Drama Theatre, the Comedy Theatre, The Opera and Ballet Theatre, the Puppet Theatre and the Chamber Music Theatre. Drama and vocal festivals are held regularly in the city, famous actors and actresses from Moscow give performances in the theatres every month.
There two Zoos in Nizhny Novgorod: “Limpopo” in Sormovo and “Switzerland” in Gagarin street. The biggest park of attractions in the city is situated in the park “Switzerland”.